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Optics of atmospheric aerosol
Institute research workers are currently developing methods of remote laser sounding of aerosol atmosphere parameters. Various lidars are being designed and applied by information-analytical center (IAC) to develop altitude profiles of aerosol optical characteristics in the troposphere and stratosphere, they are also used to map aerosol pollution of the atmosphere in large industrial centers. Integrated lidar and acoustic studies meant for reveal regularities of interaction between aerosol and gas components, as well as meteoparameters in the surface layer of the atmosphere are being carried out. The role of multiple scattering during optical sounding of scattering media is being studied as well.

The IAC experts have constructed a flying test-bench "Optic-E" which enables mapping of aerosol composition of atmosphere and ecological expertise of air composition in large cities. Using lidar, current information about cloud sheet including data on geometric and optical peculiarities of the clouds, and information about muddiness of the upper ocean can be obtained quickly.

Turbulence atmosphere optics
Turbulence fluctuations of air refractive index disrupt the inner structure of laser beam, propagating in the atmosphere. This physical phenomenon underlies the research trend developed within the Institute – study and forecasting of turbulence fluctuation characteristics of laser field. An advanced theory has been created and experiments are being held in the frameworks of this trend. New methods for optical sounding of atmospheric turbulent flow characteristics are currently being developed.

Non-linear atmospheric optics
New effects of non-linear optics arising in the atmosphere with laser beam propagated are being studied in the frameworks of this scientific activity, including evaporation, explosion, burning of aerosols, optical break-down in aero-disperse media, ponderomotive effects, light-induced translucence of turbid media.

A theory of random coherence laser beams self-action in heterogeneous media is being currently developed. The problem of energy loss description and that of laser beams directionality in the atmosphere are being resolved under conditions of long-distance paths of diverse direction and random optical weather. Principal availability of coherent and non-linear interactions as a physical basis for laser and acousto-optic sounding of atmosphere parameters are being studied.

Laser radiation propagation in the atmosphere of the Earth and other planets
Certain problems (including global problems like improvement of weather forecasting accuracy, determination of radiation regime of a planet, development and application of space engineering and laser physics achievements) can’t be handled without fundamental research of phenomena accompanying propagation of optical radiation on the atmosphere.

Contemporary atmospheric optics researches concerning problem solving in astronomy, geodesy and physics of atmosphere require higher accuracy and prompt data acquisition for optical properties of the atmosphere.

Optical sounding of the atmosphere
One of research priorities of the Institute is development of fundamental basis, methods and brand new engineering devices meant for remote sounding of atmosphere. A multi-level system designed for global monitoring of altitudal stratification of optical and physical atmospheric parameters has been created and is presently being operated in the Institute on the basis of a unique complex of stationary and mobile units for ground, sea, air and space-basing for remote environmental and atmospheric monitoring. The acquired experimental data enable study of relations between various atmospheric parameters and help to determinate regularities in their variations. The background of research potential and experience in terms of complex problem solving is applied for study of global climate and environment change problems.

Laser spectroscopy of the atmosphere
The Institute research workers are elaborating new methods of laser spectroscopy and are constructing pilot models of next generation spectral equipment on their basis – supersensitive laser spectrometers. The experts are carrying out studies of high resolution vibrational-rotational spectra of weakly absorbed atmospheric gases and small man-made and natural admixtures.

The influence of inner- and intermolecular interactions on the structure of spectrum and outline of separate spectral lines is being researched. Methods of laser concentration analysis of multi-component media with high speed of operation and high sensitivity are being elaborated.

Metal vapor lasers
Metal vapor lasers, excimer lasers and dye lasers are widely used for sounding of the atmosphere due to their high monochromaticity, wide range of wave lengths generating ultraviolet, visible and near infrared bands, ability to generate high capacity, energy and short duration of laser radiation pulses with high repetition rate.

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