The geographical location. Lying in the central part of the East European Plain, the region borders on Smolensk Region in the south, on Pskov Region in the south-west, on Novgorod Region in the west and the north-west, Vologda Region in the north, Yaroslavl Region in the north-east and the east and Moscow Region in the east and the south-east.
Federal district: Central
Administrative center: Tver (408,8 thous. people), distance to Moscow – 170 km
Major cities: Rzhev, Vyshny Volochyok, Kimry, Torzhok, Konakovo.
Natural resources. The Valdai Hills lie in the west of the region (its height up to 343 m) adjoining moraine plains in the south. The principal rivers are the Volga, the Mologa and the Tverda. More than 500 lakes are located at the territory of Tver region, including Lake Seliger, and Ivankovо reservoir, Uglich reservoir, Rybinsk reservoir, Vyshnevolotsk reservoir.
The soils widespread in Tver region are sod-podzolic and grey-podzolic soils. The vegetation system is formed by conifer and small-leaved forests (covering about one third of the territory).
Primary social and economic activities. The share of the region in the national economic indicators is as follows: GRP (gross regional product) - 0.6%, industrial production volume - 0.7%, agricultural production volume - 0.7%, retail trade volume - 0.7%, fixed investment volume - 0.6%.
The main industries are machine building, metalworking, textile industry, chemical industry, printing industry, woodworking industry, pulp and paper industry, glass and porcelain industry.
The agriculture. The agricultural lands of all categories, according to the All-Russian Agricultural Census, cover more than 2 million ha, or 24% of the region’s lands, the arable land amounts to 1.08 million ha, or 13% of the region’s lands. The prevailing role in the agriculture belongs to animal husbandry, including beef and dairy cattle-breeding, sheep, swine, goat, and poultry breeding. The crop production specializes in growing fiber flax, potatoes, vegetables, and feed crops.
The Fuel and Energy Complex of Tver region is the base for all the sectors of the regional economy, satisfying demands of both Tver region and the adjoining regions. Almost two-thirds of electric power produced in Tver region is supplied to other regions. The regional facilities generate electricity in the volumes exceeding those of the region; thus in 2006 over 31 billion kW/h were produced, which surpassed the needs of the region about six times. In the same 2006, the total heat production was about 10 million Gcal.
Two large federal power stations operate in the region, those are the Kalinin nuclear power plant in the town of Udomlya (which is a part of JSC “Rosenergoatom Concern”, with installed capacity of 3 MW), and the Konakovo state district power plant (which submits to the power company “Enel OGK-5”, with installed capacity of 2.4 MW), as well as four power plants (Tver heat electropower station -1, Tver heat electropower station -3, Tver heat electropower station -4, and Vyshnevolotsk heat electropower station), several boiler houses and a heating company, which are subject to TGC-2. Most part of the generated energy is supplied to the wholesale electricity market.
The main plant providing electric power transportation and centralized energy supply in the region is JSC “Tverenergo”. The length of its power supply network is more than 50 thous.km, meanwhile about 11.5 thousand transformer substations are under its authority. The accumulated depreciation of the company is about 80%. Electricity is supplied to consumers by Tver energy marketing company, separated out of the “TverEnergo” in 2004, and included in the OJSC “Interregional distribution net company of the Center”.
Transport infrastructure. The favorable geographical position of Tver region ensured establishment of a highly developed transport infrastructure. Tver region is conveniently connected to any other region of Russia, the CIS states and foreign countries by means of railways, highways, water and air routes. The passenger motor transport in Tver region serves 36 districts, about 600 rural districts, 30 urban-type community, and 23 cities.
The hard surface public roads stretch for more than 16 thous.km. Two highways of an international importance cross the region; these are Moscow - St. Petersburg and Moscow – Riga highways, connecting the region with the Baltic countries and Scandinavia.
The total mileage of the railways in Tver region is 1.8 thous.km. The transport system includes parts of the Oktyabrskaya Railway (or October Railway): Moscow - St. Petersburg, Moscow - Riga, Rybinsk - Bologoye - Pskov - Riga, Moscow - Sonkovo - St. Petersburg.
The 1st class airfield aimed at a large-capacity aircraft maintenance is located in the suburbs of Tver.
The region also possesses the largest in the Upper Volga port with a freight dock which allows to maintain “river - sea” vessels with a draught up to 4 meters.
Tourism. Tver region is one of the well-established tourist regions of Russia with an actively developing tourism infrastructure. Currently, the region has more than 200 tourist accommodation sites, 52 of which have been built and reconstructed during the past 5 years. The territory of Tver region is a place of significant transit tourist traffic leading to the neighboring regions - Velikiy Novgorod, St. Petersburg, Golden Ring cities.
The main types of tourism in Tver region are recreation activities (more than a half of all the tourist flow), excursions (26% of all visits), resort holidays and treatment (19% of all tourists visiting the region.)
The main tourism centers in Tver region are Lake Seliger and the Upper Lakes system, the Volga River source, the cities of Tver, Torzhok, Staritsa, Vyshny Volochyok, Rzhev and Toropets, Ivankovo Reservoir, otherwise referred to as the Moscow sea. Tourism on the territories of Kimry, Kalyazin and Vesyegonsk regions are also actively developing.