Geographic location. Tyumen Region is one of the largest regions of the Russian Federation, occupying 8.4% of its territory. Lying in the centre of Eurasia, in the west of the Asian part of Russia, Tyumen region stretches from the steppes of Kazakhstan to the coasts of the Arctic Ocean, covering most of the West-Siberian plain. The region ranks the third largest in Russia after Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and Krasnoyarsk Krai, bordering on the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurgan, Omsk and Sverdlovsk regions.
Federal district: Urals
Administrative center: Tyumen, distance to Moscow – 1.7 thous. km
Major cities. The region is comprised of two equal federal subjects – Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Major cities of the region: Tobolsk, Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk, Nefteyugansk, Ishim, Yalutorovsk, Khanty-Mansiysk and Salekhard.
Natural resources. Extreme natural and climatic conditions form one of the regional characteristic features – 40% of the territory refers to the Far North or is equated to it.
The region possesses rich fresh water reserves, contained in the large rivers like Ob, Irtysh, Tobol, and lakes – Chyornoye, Bolshoy Uvat and others, subsurface waters, containing over the half national reserves of iodine and bromine. The region is called sometimes “the territory of hundred thousands of lakes”: here lie about 70 thousand lakes, including the thermokarst and swamp lakes, stagnant salty pools.
Much of the region territory (43 mln ha) is covered with forests, the overall timber resources estimated as much as 5.4 bln cubic meters. The region possesses the third richest forest resources reserves in the country.
The largest national petroleum and gas reserves are concentrated in Tyumen Region. Gas recovery is performed mainly in the northern districts. Petroleum deposits Samotlorskoye, Kholmogorskoye, Krasnoleninskoye, Fedorovskoye and gas deposits Urengoyskoye, Medvezhye, Yamburgskoye and others are considered unique. The regional manufacturers perform digging of peat, sapropel, quartz sands, limestone. About 400 deposits containing raw construction materials have been explored. Ore mineral resources and precious stones have been discovered at the eastern slopes of Polar and Circumpolar Ural.
Primary economic activities. The gross regional product of the region amounted RUR 731 bln (2012 estimate).
The positive changes can be witnessed in the real sector of economy and the social sphere of Tyumen region: the industrial output increased considerably, the record crop harvest was obtained, consumer demand grew constantly higher and the unemployment level dropped.
A number of large-scale investment projects aimed at establishing the new, expanding and modernizing the operating plants were continued, new houses were put into operation.
At the end 2011, the manufacturing index made 116.3% (the average national index – 104.7%). Oil production grew considerably, oil recovery continued its progress; most of machine-building enterprises as well as construction industry and food industry companies operated in a stable mode.
Major branches of industry. The region ranks the first in the national industrial output, with fuel sector as the major branch – it gives 86.4% of the regional industrial output. Considerable volume of the national petroleum (64%) and gas (91%) recovery is performed in Tyumen Region.
The enterprises of machine-building complex are mostly oriented at oil production, geologic exploration, oil recovery equipment, tractor trailers, woodworking machines.
The chemical and petrochemical industries produce butadiene, synthetic resins, polyethylene pipes and about one third of the liquid domestic gas volume.
Wood chemical complex includes wood harvesting and woodworking industries. Timber is mostly exported raw from the district (round timber, mine wood, firewood).
Agriculture. The severe natural climatic conditions allow cultivating of only 3% of the regional territory. About 80% of the agricultural products are produced in the south of the region, which provides more favourable climatic conditions; here farmers grow grains, potato, vegetables, rough and succulent forage. Dairy and meat cattle-farming enjoys vast hayfields and pastures. Trades traditional for the indigenous peoples of the North – deer farming and fishing – are developed in the region.
The agricultural production co-operative «Yemurtlinsky», entering the top 100 agricultural companies of Russia, is one of the largest regional complexes, producing and marketing plant-growing products and raising cattle.
Another agro-industrial object is the OJSC «Agro-industrial company «Kaskara», a dynamically developing company with high capacity, growing potato and other vegetables and producing dairy products under the trademark «Bely Klever».
Several poultry farms operate in the region: «Borovskaya», «Pyshminskaya», «Tyumensky Broiler».
Fuel and energy complex. Electric power industry is developing intensively in the region. The major national producers of electric energy – state district power plants located in Surgut (№1 and №2) and in Nizhnevartovsk – operate on associated gas, supplying electric energy to the oil-and-gas complex of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug. The chief electric power plants operating in the south of the region are Tyumen heat power plant №1 and №2 and Tobolsk HPP.
In 2011, the index of production and distribution of electric power, water and gas reached 102.3%. With the advanced electric power industry, the region provides its enterprises and population with the home-produced energy.
Foreign trade turnover. The contribution made by Tyumen Region into the national foreign economic relations – and in the trade turnover in particular – is one of the most considerable in the country. In 2012, the regional foreign trade made USD 2.4 bln, USD 1.7 bln fell on exported and USD 683 mln – on imported goods.
The structure of regional export is predominated by the organic chemical compounds (52.8% - fractions of butane, isobutane, pentane, isopentane), used as raw materials for synthetic rubber production, and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, which is a high-octane number component for motor gasoline. The second largest export item is liquid oil gas (44.3%) and petroleum products made of bituminous minerals. Machines, equipment and transportation vehicles rank the third export item.
Export operations were carried out chiefly with the partners from Turkey, Finalnd, Poland, Hungary, Sweden, the Netherlands and the Ukraine.
The import commodity pattern is predominated by industrial equipment of various purposes (84%), added by bulldozers, pipelayer cranes, engines, pumps, other equipment and accessories.
Major importing countries: Germany, Italy, France, the USA and China.
Transport infrastructure. Tyumen is a large transport hub, lying along the Trans-Siberian Railway, connected by the railways and highways with autonomous districts, the European part of Russia and Eastern Siberia; oil and gas trunk pipelines cross the region.
The main international transport corridors running through Tyumen region are the highway route MTC№ 2 «TransSib»(MTC – International Transport Corridor), including the road Tyumen – Ishim. The chief regional transportation corridor is the road Tura – Irtysh – Ob – MTC «Northern Seaway».
Automobile transport is developing fast nowadays, the park of transport vehicles is growing. The regional centre is connected to industrial centres of the mid Ob region by the year-round highways.
River transport is of high significance in many districts of the region. Large river ports operate in most of the industrial centers, lying along the waterways.
Air transportation is developed as well, carrying out passenger flights into many cities of Russia and the CIS states. Tyumen airport performs customs and border control and is open for the international flights.
Pipeline transfer is provided by subdivisions of such large Russian companies as the JSC «Gazprom», the JSC «АК «TransNeft».
Tourism. Tyumen region is an amazing place with a history lasting for thousands of years, rich in diverse tourism resources, including over one thousand of historical and cultural objects, hundreds of archeological monuments.
The region is called sometimes «The Gates to Siberia». It is a place where famous path-finders of the XVIth century started their exploration of the new lands, it is a place where tourists start their acquaintance with Siberia today. The number of valuable tourism objects referred to the cultural resources puts Tyumen region to the seventh place among other regions of Russia. One can put it in one range with such developed countries as Canada, Norway, Germany.
The following kinds of tourism predominate in the region:
Business tourism – is the main tourism sector in Tyumen region, the engine of tourism industry development. Today over 40% of tourists come to the region for the purposes of business. Research organizations and state Universities hold the international and national conferences, covering a wide range of scientific interests, on the regular basis.
Cultural tourism. Such historic places of the region as Nizhnyaya Tavda, Isker, Vagay keep the memory of the legendary campaign of Ermak and Conquest of Siberia.
Sanatorium and health resort tourism. With the wide range of unique natural therapeutic factors, the region possesses about 30 sanatoria, 6 hot springs, 12 water therapeutic objects with recreation areas, 56 natural monuments and 33 state sanctuaries (the most famous of which is Abalaksky natural-historical complex in Tobolsk district).
Sport tourism. Tyumen region possesses an advanced infrastructure of sports objects and a wide range of sports events, attracting the guests from different countries and regions. There are available airclubs, stadiums, shooting areas, swimming pools, billiard halls, bowling, sports palaces, race tracks and a lot more.
Pilgrimage tourism. Pilgrims from all over Russia come to Tyumen region to see the relics presented here – 4 operating monasteries: Tyumen Friary of the Holy Trinity, Ilyinsky Convent of Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, Abalaksky Svyato-Znamensky Friary and Ioanno-Vvedensky convent. All the monasteries are recognized the historical and architectural monuments, being related to a great number of historic and cultural events.
Hunting and fishing tourism. The southern territories of Tyumen region are rich in flora and fauna, giving great opportunities for the hunting and fishing fans. There are several hunting and fishing centers in the region.
The ideas concerning improvement of the available and development of other kinds of tourism are introduced in the region.